Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, individual correspondence)


Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, individual correspondence)

(20) The expression having ‘brother’, aha from inside the BT, has actually seeking arrangement apk on top of that been enhanced, although this form is even used in Turoyo. Hertevin enjoys each other ?aha and ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), however, Mandaic has only aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

On the other hand, additional NENA, i’ve most other conditions: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) One instead strange goods which is attested in every NENA dialects except Sanandaj Religious (and therefore probably only a chance pit on the evidence) are aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) contends that this phrase derives about sources ql ‘to feel crooked’. Most of the dialects utilize the form aqla, except Koy Sanjaq aqla and Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.

(22) Another keyword chatted about because of the Krotkoff (1985, 131-32, 134) are baxta ‘woman’, which has supplanted the fresh Syriac atta throughout NENA, however when you look at the Turoyo otherwise Mandaic. This phrase generally seems to be a consequence of Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It is interesting to note one an unequal plural survives within the numerous dialects: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you may Halabja inse.

(23) An urgent advancement discussed because of the Noldeke (1868, 59) are rxata, equal to Syriac rhat. The change out of h to help you x within one-word is used in the NENA dialects where verb was attested. Examples: Sanandaj Christian raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi roentgen-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).

(24) Various other unexpected advancement ‘s the NENA verb ‘fear’, that takes brand new variations zda?a, zdaya, and zdala about some dialects. Macuch and you may Panoussi (1974, 50) render a possible derivation on Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Variations with the infixed d are located throughout new NENA dialects where in actuality the supply is attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-dreading (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Not all the of one’s pinpointing attributes of NENA are located in either Turoyo otherwise Mandaic

I think the above causes it to be obvious that NENA languages share a variety of unique traits which are located none in the last attested kinds of Aramaic neither regarding almost every other way of life languages. These characteristics assortment across the domain names from phonology, morphology, and also the lexicon.

Particularly, all of the dialects out of NENA consent in the conditions dos, nine, fourteen, 15, sixteen, 21, and you can twenty two. Most of the dialects in which we have recommendations along with agree on conditions 20, 23, and twenty four.

All but Halabja consent in criteria 8 and you will 11. Criterion six is found in the dialects but Halabja, Hertevin, and Sanandaj Christian.

Even with its interior divisions, the NENA dialects function a strikingly defined class, split demonstrably from both Turoyo and Mandaic. The career of them dialects away from NENA soft is beyond matter.

The amount that has is actually common across NENA is especially unbelievable when we take into account the immense differences between the many dialects. The fresh determine out-of most other dialects with the NENA has been each other deep and you will wider, while the degree of common intelligibility anywhere between languages can be very brief. The countless shared designs dispute firmly to own a common resource out of the newest NENA languages, in a choice of just one dialect or even in a team of closely associated dialects. At the same time, we can discern several important bundles from isoglosses which depict the boundaries out of dialect groups.

a) The fresh dialect regarding Halabja does not display some very important designs and that are observed as a consequence of all of the remainder of the languages. It will not means a CCiC-ce preterite off intransitive verbs (8), it offers no b(it)- coming marker (10), and has now zero 3rd person one copula with step one (11). This might be the absolute most standard office between languages out-of NENA. This means that left dialects means a group by which designs bequeath when you are Halabja remained unchanged by him or her.


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